Distributor / authorized representative that deals with supply & delivery of cyclones and hydrocyclones to industrial enterprises of Russia
Engineering company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), Russia, has been successfully working with a number of Russian industrial enterprises at the local market for more than 20 years. Since the company’s founding, it has acquired immense engineering experience, market reputation, and has realized more than a hundred large-scale projects at the industrial plants in Russia. Our company is continuously in search of new business partners, who consider Russian market investment-attractive and want to boost their sales in the region, as well as expand their field of activities and enter a new international level.Contents:
We are interested in cooperation with the manufacturers of cyclones and hydrocyclones, who are looking for an official and reliable distributor to deal with supply & delivery of their equipment to the industrial plants in Russia.
The company’s top management and sales team are well acquainted with the Russian market, its mentality and laws; they also understand industrial specifics of the financial and economic activities of the Russian customers. All our sales managers have a large customer database, extensive experience of successful sales and well-established connections with the potential buyers of your cyclones and hydrocyclones. This allows our managers to promptly set out the most promising directions for promotion and to ensure a rapid entry of the products into the promising Russian market. Our employees, who are fluent in English and German, are focused on working at the international market with the supplies of foreign equipment.
Our team of experienced engineers, who can handle the most serious technical problems, constantly keeps in touch with the Russian customers, holds meetings and delivers presentations regarding the latest achievements of our manufacturing partners. They point out the engineering challenges and actively communicate with all the departments at Russian plants. That is why the specifics of doing a business in the Russian Federation are well-known to us, and we also know the equipment of the local industrial plants and their up-to-date modernization needs.
Once we become your authorized representative in Russia, our marketing staff will carry out a market research in order to check the demand for cyclones and hydrocyclones, will submit a market overview for cyclones and hydrocyclones that you offer and evaluate the needs for this type of equipment at local plants. Our specialists will also estimate the potential and capacity of this market at local industrial plants. Our IT-team will start developing a website for your products in Russian. Our experts will assess the conformity between your cyclones and hydrocyclones and customer needs as well as analyze the common reaction to the new goods in general. We will look into the categories of potential customers, and pick out the largest and the most promising plants.
Upon becoming your authorized agent on the territory of Russia, ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), will obtain certificates, if required, for a batch of the goods, for various types of cyclones and hydrocyclones in compliance with Russian standards. We can also arrange the inspection in order to obtain TR TS 010 and TR TS 012 Certificates. These certificates provides permission to operate your equipment at all industrial plants of the EAEU countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan), including the hazardous industrial facilities. Our company is eager to assist in issuing Technical Passports for cyclones and hydrocyclones as per Russian and other EAEU countries’ requirements.
Our engineering company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), collaborates with several Russian design institutes in various industrial segments, which allows us to conduct preliminary design as well as subsequent design works according to the standards, construction rules and regulations that are applicable in Russia and other CIS countries. It also enables us to include your cyclones and hydrocyclones into the future projects.
The Company has its own logistics department that can provide packing service, handling as well as the most efficient and cost effective mode of transportation of the goods (incl. over dimensional and overweight goods). The goods can be delivered on DAP or DDP-customer’s warehouse basis in full compliance with all the relevant regulations and requirements that are applicable on the Russian market.
Our company has its own certified specialists who will carry out installation supervision and commissioning of the delivered equipment, as well as further guarantee and post-guarantee maintenance of cyclones and hydrocyclones. They will also provide necessary training and guidance for the customer’s personnel.
Cyclones and hydrocyclones. A brief overwiew
Devices used for cleaning gas from dust are called cyclones. The process of gas suspension separation was named “cyclone” after them. This process is also used for liquid droplets separation from the external phase of gas. Later, devices for separation of suspensions were developed, which worked by the same principle as cyclones , and they were called hydrocyclones.
The cyclone design is based on the principle of centrifugal force application.
According to the principle of operation, cyclones do not differ from the hydrocyclones and have similar advantages. There are some differences in the shape of the device body.
Cyclones can be divided into reverse flow and uniflow cyclones. In the latter ones, gas is discharged along one axis, and they are less efficient than the reverse-flow cyclones. Furthermore, cyclones can be conventionally divided according to the form of their body into cylindro-conical, conical and cylindrical cyclones.
When dividing elements of the cyclone separator by swirling design, it is possible to identify such types as spiral, tangential and helical. Thus, the cylinders are also divided according to the direction of swirl into left-hand and right-hand ones.
Process and quality of gas cleaning in the cyclone separator
The process of gas cleaning by the cyclone separator is an integrated aerodynamic process with clean gas and polluted gas moving vortex-like in different directions. Dust is collected in external gas layers and is discharged with them into a dust collection chamber. Quality of gas cleaning in the cyclone separator depends directly on the following factors:
- geometric shape of the device;
- tendency of dust particles to adhesion;
- velocity and turbulence of gas flow.
Principle of operation and advantages
Separation of dust and gas flow is induced by centrifugal forces in the cyclone separator. Centrifugal forces arise during flow swirling by various mechanical devices or tangential airflow. Under the influence of centrifugal force dust is thrown from gas to the body walls and into a hopper designed to collect dust. In order to indicate the angle between the inlet nozzle and the body, it is specified in the device design name.
The figure shows a diagram of the cyclone separator’s design. The device is composed of a cylindrical body having a cone bottom. Feed gas enters the body tangentially through a nozzle. The inlet velocity of gas is 20-30 m/s. Due to the fact that gas is fed in tangentially, it starts a rotational movement around the pipe which is located in the body axis and discharges the clean gas.
Thus, the two flows are formed inside the cyclone separator, following a spiral trajectory. Feed gas forms an external flow and moves down along the walls of the body. Thus, dust contained in it is thrown against the walls of the device by centrifugal force. Clean gas forms an internal flow. It goes up and is discharged outside the device. A cluster of solid particles is formed at the body walls and it is forced into a discharge hopper by the flows.
Cyclones have a number of distinctive features. Thus, they have a simple and space-saving design, they have no moving parts, and they are compatible with chemically aggressive media. Moreover, the quality of gas cleaning in cyclones is higher than that one in gravitational settling devices.
Cyclones are not recommended for cleaning of gas containing particles having size less than 10 µm or having a strong abrasive action.
Therefore, devices combining several small cyclone separator components in one body are used for large volumes of gas cleaning instead of a single cyclone separator having large radius. Such devices are called multi-cyclones.
Multi-cyclone separator. Elements of the multi-cyclone separator
Multi-cyclones are widely used in practice for better distribution of dusty gas and for dust extraction. This device is made of cyclone elements connected in parallel and sharing a common body, a collecting hopper and a common supply and discharge of gas.
In multi-cyclones , gas is moved due to a petal or spiral swirl element installed in each part of the device, but not by a tangential feed of gas. Due to this, performance of the multi-cyclone separator will be much higher than that one of a conventional cyclone separator of the same size.
The most popular types of cyclone separator elements can be found in the figures
"Spiral" element has the smallest flow resistance and is hardly characterized by clogging with dust.
Dust settling in the individual elements of such a cyclone separator occurs in the same way as in a conventional cyclone separator. Cyclone elements having diameter of 100, 150 or 250 mm are most commonly used. The velocity of dusty gas of up to 4 m/s can be achieved in such devices. Such devices have a high rate of dust settling while being small and having a low flow resistance. This means that multi-cyclones have a better performance as compared to single cyclones or group cyclones of the same size.
The design and principle of operation of multi-cyclone separator
Polluted gas is supplied to the gas distribution chamber bounded by tube sheets. The cyclone elements are tightly attached to the tube sheets. After the gas is cleaned, it is discharged through the exhaust pipes of elements to a common chamber. The separated dust particles are collected in the cone bottom of the cyclone separator. Cyclone elements of such design have a small diameter. Gas enters therein rather from above than tangentially. A swirling motion is imparted to gas flow by means of a special spiral or petals equipped with inclined vanes.
Quality operation of the multi-cyclone separator is ensured by adequacy of its elements and equal operational conditions.
The common body of the multi-cyclone separator includes cyclone elements. the elements are mounted leakproof in the tube sheets. Feed gas is supplied through the fitting to the gas distribution chamber and it is distributed into the cyclone elements, fills in a circular space between the element body and clean gas discharge nozzle. Vane-type devices forcing gas flow to swirl are located in the circular space. Dust particles are thrown to the walls of the cyclone element, move down the spiral, and enter a hopper which is common to all the elements. Clean gas is discharged out of each element through the pipe to the common chamber, and outside the device through the upper nozzle.
As a rule, single cyclones have the diameter of 40-1000 mm, and cyclone elements have the diameter of 40-250 mm.
Multi-cyclones are small diameter cyclones connected in parallel. Such devices collect dust better because centrifugal force increases greatly with a small radius of the cyclone separator.
The multi-cyclone separator is capable of operating with variable load, i.e. its individual elements can be enabled or disabled, if necessary.
The tube is equipped with external spiral vanes imparting a spiral motion to the gas flow. Gas is supplied to the body from above; then it moves along the surface of the spiral in the circular space (between the external surface of the pipe and the internal surface of the body). Solid particles are retained on the walls of the body and then fall into the bottom cone part and are fed to the hopper of the multi-cyclone separator.
Design elements of the multi-cyclone separator are arranged vertically, in parallel rows in the rectangular body. The chamber is equipped with two tube sheets; the elements are installed through the holes in these sheets. Gas for cleaning is supplied through the inlet nozzle into the space between the tube sheets and it is distributed over the individual elements. After cleaning, gas enters the space above the upper tube sheet and it is discharged through the side outlet. Solid particles are poured into the cone bottom. Elements of the multi-cyclone separator are made of iron; the tube sheets are made of sheet steel. Such devices are capable of gas cleaning at a wide temperature range.
Cleaning rate in cyclones and multi-cyclones
The cleaning rate of gas suspensions in cyclones reaches 96-99% with 20 µm particles or 70-95% with 10 µm particles, or 30-85% with 5 µm particles. When cleaning gas in multi-cyclones , efficiency does not depend much on the particle size of solid phase. For gases containing 5, 10 and 20 µm particles, the respective cleaning rate will be 65-85, 85-90, 90-95%. Furthermore, the higher the flow resistance in the cyclone separator, the more the degree of cleaning.
Calculation of centrifugal rate in cyclones
When the body is rotating around its axis, it is exposed to the centripetal force which is directed in the direction of rotation. Along with it, according to the law of action and reaction, a force arises, which is equal in magnitude to the centripetal force, but it acts in the opposite direction (centrifugal force). Thus, the centrifugal force is the inertial force which occurs when the body's motion changes. Centrifugal force can be calculated as follows:
C = (m·ω²)/r, kgf
where m is weight; w is body rotational velocity, m/s; r is radius of rotation, m.
The ratio of the centrifugal force acceleration to the gravity acceleration corresponds numerically to the ratio of the centrifugal force value to the force weight of the body. It is the main parameter characterizing centrifugal devices. This ratio is called the centrifugal separation factor, and it represents a dimensionless quantity:
Kp = ω²/(r·g)
Under the influence of centrifugal force, the particles are settled according to the same laws as by gravity. The difference is that the rate of particles settling will be significantly higher than the settling rate in settling devices. The increase in settling rate is determined by the numeric value of the centrifugal separation factor Kp.
This formula is used to calculate the centrifugal force, Fz, which causes particles settling:
Fz = 4·Π²·ρ·V·r·n²
where V is a volume,
r is a diameter of the primary vortex,
n is a rotational velocity of the vortex,
p is density.
Centrifugal force influences gas and dust particles. However, due to the fact that density of dust particles exceeds density of gas, they are subjected to a stronger centrifugal force discharging dust particles outside.
Cyclones are generally used to remove quite large dust particles from gas having a large volume. Fine dust is hardly settled in such devices. The cyclone separator does not require any other energy, but energy of gas flow for its operation.
Parameters of cyclones operation. Calculations and efficiency of cyclone separator
A factor of gas cleaning is the most important parameter characterizing the cyclone separator operation; it is expressed by the formula:
φ = Gsettled/GCT,
where Gsettled is a weight content of settled particles,
GCT is a weight content of particles in initial gas suspension.
Time required for settling of particles having specific diameter depends on their motion. The volume of the cyclone separator, required for operation, is calculated according to the specified productivity and time, t. The minimum diameter of deposited particles is taken as a basis for calculations, if the treated gas contains polydisperse solid phase. Next, gas cleaning ratio is calculated, using the curve of their distribution by size.
The settling rate in centrifugal devices
There are three areas of settling during the dust settling both in centrifugal devices and in dust-collection settling chambers. These areas are characterized by numerical values of Reynolds and Archimedes criteria. For any settling mode, centrifugal force influencing a solid particle will be Kp times as much as the gravity force.
Dimensions, efficiency, and design of cyclones
Dimensions of the cyclone separator are determined by circumferential velocity of gas therein and in the exhaust pipe at a preset degree of dust dispersiveness. The gas velocity is taken in the following ranges:
- 12 to 14 m/s in a cyclone separator;
- 4 to 8 m/s in an exhaust pipe;
- 18 to 20 m/s at the inlet of the cyclone separator.
Duration of gas stay in cyclone separator is calculated as follows:
t = l/ω = (2Π·r2 · ψ)/ω, s
The time required for settling is calculated as follows:
t = (r2 - r1)/ω0, s
where: ω is an average circumferential velocity of gas in the cyclone separator (m/s);
ωt is a gas velocity in an exhaust pipe (m/s);
ω0 is a settling rate;
r1 is an external radius of the exhaust pipe (m);
r2 is a radius of the cylindrical part of the cyclone separator (m);
φ is the number of turns made by gas particles around the exhaust pipe in the cyclone separator;
t is duration of stay of gas particles in the cyclone separator (s).
An average efficiency of modern cyclones is 75 to 90%, but it may deviate from these values depending on the characteristics of deposited dust. Use of cyclones is limited by quantity of suspended solid particles (dmin≥1 μ).
The resistance index of cyclones is from 40 to 85 mm of water, resulting in consumption of a large amount of energy.
Improving the efficiency of dust collection from gas. Selection of the optimum cyclone separator
To improve efficiency of dust collection from gas, it is advisable to reduce the width and the diameter of the inlet. The depth to which the exhaust pipe is submerged is also increased, and a small cone angle of a tube is provided in some cyclones. However, these methods of efficiency improvement lead to increase in hydraulic resistance of the cyclone separator.
Cone angle decrease is often used to improve performance of the cyclone separator. Thus, the number of revolutions of gas flow increases. However, cone angle increase leads to the fact that the height of the device should be increased.
The calculation of dynamic viscosity of gas at µ temperature, at Q volumetric flow rate of gas with dust, at gas density, the required degree of cleaning ɳ, degree of dust concentration in gas, as well as density of dust particles, is used in order to choose the optimal cyclone separator.
First, it is necessary to determine the type of the cyclone separator. Primarily, it is necessary to evaluate the particles to be collected, as well as to determine gas velocity vg in the device(2 to 5 m/s).
This formula is used to calculate the cross-sectional area of the cyclone separator:
F = Q/νg
If a N group of cyclones or a multi-cyclone separator is required to clean gas, the cyclone separator diameter is calculated by this formula:
D = √F/0,785·N
Thereafter, it is necessary to round off the diameter of the cyclone separator and to calculate the actual gas velocity in the cyclone separator:
νg = Q/(0,785·N·D²)
The centrifugal separation factor Kp influences gas cleaning. Its increase also increases the degree of cleaning. It is possible to increase Kp by reducing the radius of rotation of the gas flow or by increasing its velocity. However, the body radius reducing will reduce the productivity of the unit. At the same time, gas velocity increasing will result in a significant increase in flow resistance and will increase the turbulence of the gas flow. In this case, solid phase settling will be worsened due to the turbulence, and the clean gas will mix with the initial gas.
The same formula is used to calculate multi-cyclones as for a group of single cyclones. Therefore, such factors as dust properties and initial dust content in gas are used to select the optimal diameter of the cyclone separator. Thereafter, it is necessary to determine the number of elements of the cyclone separator. To do this, the total amount of gas subject to be purified is divided by the performance of one element of the cyclone separator.
Application of cyclones
Gas suspensions formation takes place in many industrial processes. These include: solid materials drying under the action of hot gases, treatment of them in the form of baking, grinding, sizing, and other operations.
During separation of gas suspensions, solid particles are separated from gas particles by special devices. This is required in order to cleanse the air of harmful impurities in the production facilities and in the environment. In addition, a number of gas suspensions are separated to collect valuable products out of them.
Cyclones used in the industry have a variety of designs and different modifications.
With centrifugal acceleration w2r increasing, w0 increases and t is reduced. Therefore, provided that inlet velocity of gas suspension is constant, the smaller the diameter of body of cyclone separator is, the higher its efficiency is (w0 increases, and t and da fall). For this reason, multi-cyclones are widespread. Such units represent a group of cyclones , having a small diameter. The cyclones are arranged in one body and are connected in parallel.
It should be noted that cyclones have limitations with respect to the impurities concentration, due to the fact that it provides free removal of them. High content of solid particles leads to a quick clogging of outlets, which leads to malfunction of gas purifying unit.
Cyclones brief summary
Centrifugal force is used in centrifuges and hydrocyclones to separate suspensions and emulsions into individual components. The centrifugal force in the centrifuge occurs as a result of its body rotation. In hydrocyclones contents rotates in the stationary body. In terms of design, hydrocyclone separator is much simpler than centrifuge, since it has no moving elements, but as for the qualitative characteristics of suspension separation into easy (centrate) phase and heavy (residue) phase it is interior to centrifuge.
The principle of operation of hydrocyclone separator is based on high velocity of suspension fed tangentially into device. As a result of the rotational movement within the body along a spiral and due to flow swirling centrifugal force field occurs and the suspension is separated into light and heavy components, discharged separately out of the hydrocyclone separator through different outlets. The efficiency of the unit is estimated by a value of a material balance index. Using of hydrocyclones is inappropriate in the case of high density (ductility) of initial suspension since it leads to a rapid clogging of outlet nozzles.
Designs and types of hydrocyclones
Floor-type hydrocyclones are often used for wastewater treatment (single-casing hydrocyclones , multi-hydrocyclones , multistage hydrocyclones ).
Pressure-type hydrocyclone separator. Drawing and description
Cone and cylinder parts are the main parts of the floor-type hydrocyclone separator. Wastewater enters the hydrocyclone separator through the tangential inlet, which is located in the cylinder part of the hydrocyclone separator. Apex is located at the end of the cone part. Residue separated from wastewater is discharged through this apex. Clarified water is discharged through the overflow nozzle. This outlet is arranged on the axis of the hydrocyclone separator in the top part thereof. The workflow enters the cylinder part of the hydrocyclone separator through the tangential inlet. Next, it moves along a helical spiral and goes into the cone part. There, at the level of 0,7D (where D is the diameter of the cylinder part) flow is inverted to the central axis, and then begins to move along a cylindrical spiral upwards towards the discharge outlet, through which it is removed from the device.
Due to centrifugal force, the impurities are separated even in the case of small dimensions of the device.
Multistage hydrocyclone separator with pressure-type nozzles
In addition, hydrocyclones with peripheral intake of clarified water are also used.
Multistage hydrocyclone separator with peripheral intake of clarified water
In the former hydrocyclone separator wastewater supply occurs tangentially through slots, common to all stages, and arranged at 120°. Water is distributed at an altitude in the inlet chambers, equipped with distribution blades. At that, workflow is moving in a converging spiral along the stage, and then goes to the central part. The residue, sliding in the stage through the slurry discharging slot, goes to the cone part of the device, and then it is removed by the action of head of water. Hydrocyclones can also be fitted with a device to remove floating impurities. Upflow velocity in the inlet chamber is taken as equal to 0.5 m/s.
Multistage hydrocyclones are used during the cleaning process intensification. Working volume of such hydrocyclones separators is divided into individual stages separated by conical orifices. Therefore, they have a small height of settling layer. And rotational movements allow to make better use of stage volume. This also contributes to the agglomeration of suspended particles. Each stage operates independently. Hydrocyclones equipped with inclined outlets used for water discharge after treatment are used for practical purposes.
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Upon becoming the official distributer of cyclones and hydrocyclones, our company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), carries out the following: finds the buyers of your products on the market, conducts technical and commercial negotiations with the customers regarding the supplies of your equipment, concludes contracts. Should a bidding take place, we will collect and prepare all the documents required for the participation, conclude all the necessary contracts for the supply of your equipment, as well as register the goods (cyclones and hydrocyclones) and conduct customs clearance procedures. We will also register a certificate of transaction (Passport of Deal) required for all foreign trade contracts in the foreign currency control department of the authorized Russian bank so that currency transaction could be effected. If required, our company will implement an equipment spacing project in order to integrate your equipment into the existing or newly built production plant.
We are convinced that our company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), will become your reliable, qualified and efficient partner & distributor in Russia.
We are always open for cooperation, so let’s move forward together!