Distributor (authorized representative) to supply turning lathes to industrial enterprises of Russia
Engineering company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), Russia, has been successfully working with a number of Russian industrial enterprises at the local market for more than 20 years. Since the company’s founding, it has acquired immense engineering experience, market reputation, and has realized more than a hundred large-scale projects at the industrial plants in Russia. Our company is continuously in search of new business partners, who consider Russian market investment-attractive and want to boost their sales in the region, as well as expand their field of activities and enter a new international level.Contents:
We are interested in cooperation with the manufacturers of turning lathes, who are looking for an official and reliable distributor to supply their equipment to the industrial plants in Russia.
The company’s top management and sales team are well acquainted with the Russian market, its mentality and laws; they also understand industrial specifics of the financial and economic activities of the Russian customers. All our sales managers have a large customer database, extensive experience of successful sales and well-established connections with the potential buyers of your turning lathes. This allows our managers to promptly set out the most promising directions for promotion and to ensure a rapid entry of the products into the promising Russian market. Our employees, who are fluent in English and German, are focused on working at the international market with the supplies of foreign equipment.
Our team of experienced engineers, who can handle the most serious technical problems, constantly keeps in touch with the Russian customers, holds meetings and delivers presentations regarding the latest achievements of our manufacturing partners. They point out the engineering challenges and actively communicate with all the departments at Russian plants. That is why the specifics of doing a business in the Russian Federation are well-known to us, and we also know the equipment of the local industrial plants and their up-to-date modernization needs.
Once we become your authorized representative in Russia, our marketing staff will carry out a market research in order to check the demand for turning lathes, will submit a market overview for turning lathes that you offer and evaluate the needs for this type of equipment at local plants. Our specialists will also estimate the potential and capacity of this market at local industrial plants. Our IT-team will start developing a website for your products in Russian. Our experts will assess the conformity between your turning lathes and customer needs as well as analyze the common reaction to the new goods in general. We will look into the categories of potential customers, and pick out the largest and the most promising plants.
Upon becoming your authorized agent on the territory of Russia, ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), will obtain certificates, if required, for a batch of the goods, for various types of turning lathes in compliance with Russian standards. We can also arrange the inspection in order to obtain TR TS 010 and TR TS 012 Certificates. These certificates provides permission to operate your equipment at all industrial plants of the EAEU countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan), including the hazardous industrial facilities. Our company is eager to assist in issuing Technical Passports for turning machines as per Russian and other EAEU countries’ requirements.
Our engineering company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), collaborates with several Russian design institutes in various industrial segments, which allows us to conduct preliminary design as well as subsequent design works according to the standards, construction rules and regulations that are applicable in Russia and other CIS countries. It also enables us to include your turning lathes into the future projects.
The Company has its own logistics department that can provide packing service, handling as well as the most efficient and cost effective mode of transportation of the goods (incl. over dimensional and overweight goods). The goods can be delivered on DAP or DDP-customer’s warehouse basis in full compliance with all the relevant regulations and requirements that are applicable on the Russian market..
Our company has its own certified specialists who will carry out installation supervision and commissioning of the delivered equipment, as well as further guarantee and post-guarantee maintenance of turning lathes. They will also provide necessary training and guidance for the customer’s personnel.
Cutting tools and basic cutting characteristics
Cutters typically have a rectangular cross-section of the rod. A tool head generally has 3 main edges (planes): the front one and two rear edges (main and auxiliary edges). On the front surface, the chips are removed. Both rear edges face the surface of the work pieces to be machined. Among tool cutting edges are also distinguished main and auxiliary.
The main edge is, as a consequence, the intersection of the front and rear main surfaces, and that does the cutting work.
Auxiliary (cutting) edge is formed by crossing of the front and rear auxiliary planes.
Main cutting characteristics:
Cutting depth t (mm) is the thickness of a layer being removed from the work piece by the cutter for 1 travel
t = (D – d)/2,
where D is the maximum diameter, mm, forming when a cutting tool touches work pieces;
d is the min. diameter, mm, forming when there is a contact with a billet.
Cutting speed V (m/min) is generated when a work piece surface point moves in the cutting direction, i.e. distance per minute.
V = pDn/1000
where D is the diameter of the surface to be machined in mm;
n is a number of rotations of the machined work piece.
Vertical component of the cutting force Pz (Н) is the cutting resistance force which acts vertically to the cutting surface.
Pz = KtS,
where K is a cutting factor.
Chip formation process
When cutting the chips with a cutter, a layer of material splits ahead of the cutting edge, owing to some upwards wedge action of the tool exceeding the tensile strength of the material, the particles begin to move in the relative extent, and whereby chips are formed.
The following types of chip are distinguished:
1) In the chip fracture, elements are separate and form different irregularly shaped flakes. These chips occur in the processing of materials such as cast iron and bronze, i.e. hard, brittle metal.
2) Cleaving chips are a chips, which elements are not closely interconnected. This chip takes place in the machining of durum steels that are, however, more viscous in comparison with cast iron and bronze. These chips appear during machining of such materials.
3) Flow chips are chips, which elements are tightly connected to each other. The upper side of such chips has small indents, and the bottom is with a smooth sheen. Such chips take place in cutting of viscous, soft material, mild steel, copper, for example.
At chips separation the material deforms. When processing the above mentioned materials level deformation is higher and at processing of hard brittle materials is lower respectively.
Cutting tool wear resistance
Cutting tool wear resistance is characterized by its constant term operation without interruption until its bluntness and depends on many criteria:
- Cutting tool material;
- Material of a work piece to be machined;
- Geometrical cross section of the tool working work piece;
- Cutting speed;
- Cross-section of cut chips;
- Cooling level.
Different materials the tools are made of endure excessive heating temperature until they lose the desired hardness (200-250 degrees for carbon tool steel, 560 - 600 degrees for high-speed steels, 800-1000 degrees for hard metals). Among other criteria affecting cutting tool wear resistance, the most important is the cutting speed. The ratio of the cutting speed to the wear resistance of the cutting tool is calculated as follows:
V = C/Tm,
where Т is cutting tool wear resistance is stated in minutes;
С is a constant depending on the tool and the work piece material criterion;
m is a value of related wear resistance.
Blades for machining tools are made of tool steel grades, sintered and mineral ceramic alloys, which are subject to special requirements: high hardness, b wear resistance, low values of brittleness, heat resistance, and mechanical strength. Tools are generally made of carbon and alloy steels. Tool steel contains 0.7 - 1.4% of carbon, and manganese, silicon, sulfur, phosphorus. After quenching, steel acquires hardness HRC = 62 - 63. Carbon steels have low resistance to overheating and wear, and when heated to 200 - 2500 degrees, they lose the desired hardness. Hence, they are suitable for making tools designed for low cutting speeds. High-hardness steel contains chromium, tungsten, vanadium, silicon, manganese are contained.
Additive alloying elements in the steel change its mechanical, physical and chemical properties:
- Improves hardenability;
- Increases hardness;
- Reduces tool deformation under heat treatment.
High-hardness steel includes:
1) High-speed steel, which is steel retaining its cutting properties during heating the working part up to 600 degrees. Tools of these steels can process material at speeds that exceed the cutting speed of the tool made the carbon-containing steels three- or fourfold. These steels are used in manufacture of conventional and shaped chisels, cutters, having high hardness (HRC = 62 - 65) and wear resistance.
2) Sintered alloys are solid alloys obtained by preparatory pressure 1000 - 4200 kg / cm2 and sintered at high temperatures (150 - 1550 degrees) of powdered titanium, tungsten, cobalt and carbon to obtain carbides of titanium and tungsten. When melting, cobalt cements these carbides together. Plates produced from sintered alloys are welded to the tools made of cheap material. These plates have high heat resistance and wear resistance. Machining of metals with such tools can be carried out at speeds the exceed the speed of high-speed tool steels sixfold and more. Sintered alloy hardness can be compared to the hardness of a diamond (the hardest mineral). This includes tungsten and titanium-tungsten alloys.
3) Mineral ceramic alloys are new tool materials, based on alumina. They are also made as a plate mechanically fixed on metal rods. Heat resistance of mineral ceramic material is above 1200 degrees, wear resistance is several times higher than that of the hard metal, so the processing tool equipped with mineral ceramic plates can work at even greater speeds than with carbide. They have, however, a low flexural strength extreme value of 30 - 45 kg/mm2. They are not suitable for shock and vibration, and are used in manufacturing of cutting tools for turning (semifinish and turn finishing) cast iron, plastic work pieces at unshocked load.
Fixing of work pieces to be machined on lathe and multicutter lathes is performed using lathe centers, chucks and special devices. Lathe centers are divided into the following types:
1) Rear centers
а) Dead center (simple, cut, disk, reverse)
b) Revolving center (point, disk)
2) Head centers (simple, extensible, faceted, reverse)
Cut centers are mounted in the tailstock of the machine for work piece end trimming to the centering recesses in it or to increase the gap between the work piece and the center of the surface with a small diameter of the roller so that one can enter and withdraw the tool.
Rotating centers are used in multicutter lathes for high-speed cutting (lathes). They are used to reduce wear of the center cone, center recesses in the billet.
Extensible centers are used to create the exact distance of ledges, grooves from the end of the shaft if necessary. Spring brings the center to achieve full contact with a center groove, then sliding center is screw locked.
Faceted head centers help to align the work piece during machining and simultaneously bring it into rotation.
On reverse centers, small work pieces are machined, here, the center hole cannot be made.
Dog or carriers are clamping devices, brackets, dog faceplates, catch plate. They are installed in the machine centers and serve to transmit torque at the time of processing.
When machining the billet on a multicutter lathes, lathes of general purpose carrier plates are used. These are self-clamping carrier plates.
The backrest prevents a decrease in deflection of machined work pieces when they are placed in the centers. According to the simplest design of the movable backrest, it is attached to a machine tool head and they are moved together. Currently. backrests are equipped with vibration dampers. While preventing bending of work pieces, they also dampen vibration.
1) Concentric jaw chuck;
2) Three-jaw chucks;
3) Collet chucks;
4) Two-jaw chucks;
5) Four-jaw chucks;
The most widely spread and versatile is a self-centering three-jaw chuck. All three jaws move simultaneously. Radial movement occurs when the disc rotates with grooves with which the jaw pins engage. The jaws, in their turn, slide in radial slots in a chuck housing. The work piece is clamped in a chuck pneumatically or electrically.
Lathes are used successfully and commonly used in mechanical workshops of machine engineering plants. The following lathe types exist:
1) general purpose lathes
They include center, screw-cutting, general purpose, high-precision screw cutting (to perform particularly fine works to obtain precise parameters), front, turret, turning and boring and etc.
2) heavy-duty lathes
Multicutter, semiautomatic, and automatic types.
3) special purpose and single purpose lathes
General description of lathes
The lathe was invented in ancient times; its prototype is an ordinary potter's wheel. The peculiarity of the lathe is that, during machining of a work piece, the work piece itself rotates, while the cutting tool is static. This feature distinguishes the lathe from milling and drilling machines.
Lathes, depending on the location of rotation axis, may be of horizontal or vertical type. When machining work pieces on horizontal machines, the work piece rotates around the horizontal axis. The work piece can be up to several meters long, but there are restrictions on its weight. On lathes of vertical type, work pieces having considerable weight can be machined. The length of the work pieces is thus limited.
Lathes allow machine products made of metal, wood, glass, plastic. However, in metalworking, special accuracy and quality of machined surfaces is required.
About 60% of the billets are machined using lathes. Currently, a full range of machining operations with work pieces can be performed on lathes, including: milling, drilling, threading, hydrostatic roll forming, etc. Thus, modern turning equipment is a complete machining center.
Most of lathes have almost identical structure. The differ only in the arrangement of the controls and dimensions. Picture 1 shows a typical lathe and its key components.
All elements of the lathe are located on firm ground, i.e. base.
The part of the machine that performs function of holding and rotating the work piece is called a headstock. The base housing is equipped with a spindle having a cone pulley and a chuck. These elements are placed at the opposite ends of the housing. High-speed models of lathes are equipped with a gearbox, which replaces the pulley.
The tailstock holds the right end of a work piece in the center under the processing. The upper work piece of the housing has such element as the quill, which is moved by the flywheel. The quill has a conical hole where reamers, drills and other tools can be inserted. The tailstock can be moved along the guides on the base and position it at a desired distance in accordance with the dimensions of the billet.
The tool head with a tool holder is located between the headstock and tailstock. The carriage (lower part of the tool head) slides along the base guides and the tool moves along the billet. Movement in the lateral direction is caused due to the cross-slide. A rotating part of the tool head is in the upper part of the slides and has a guide track where the tool head upper slides with a tool holder move. The design of the tool holder corresponds to the load which impacts the cutter.
Medium-sized machines are equipped with cutter heads, which enable to fix four cutters simultaneously. To turn the head, one should unscrew the handle in its upper part. The lathe motor is an electric motor, which is coupled to a cone pulley with leather or rubberized belt. For smooth operation of the belt drive is necessary to ensure a good tension of the belt and pulley coverage.
Thus, the key units of a lathe are:
- The axis of the lathe, which virtually extends the billet rotation axis parallel to the base.
- Front and rear columns are made of cast iron by casting and performing function of stands for units and other mechanisms of the machine. Table-type CNC machines are not equipped with columns.
- The base is the foundation of the machine. As a rule, it is made of metal by casting and is characterized by a great weight. The function of the base is to reduce the vibrations that occur during machining of billets, as well as those that are produced by electric machine.
- Electrical cabinet, inside of which there is a circuit diagram of the lathe. The outer panel comprises the main motor switch, voltmeter, indicator lights and a compressor for cooling fluids.
- Headstock is a set of gears, levers and shafts, as well as mechanisms for adjusting the rotational speed of the details and the feed rate of the cutting tool.
- Tailstock is a device that provides holding of the billet in the centers during machining, as well as taps, taps for threading and other devices.
- Change gear bracket is the main component of the headstock, where the change gears are placed to configure the machine drive during threading. Renewal of gears in modern machines is not necessary.
- Chuck is the most common type of fixture for billets.
- Tool head holds a machining tool and move it in the desired direction.
- Apron is a front tool head cover.
- Spindle is the main shaft of billet rotation, which can carry tool holders (chuck, center, collet, etc.). Its function is that it clamps the billet with it and performs rotation. Cutting tool moves in two independent directions (parallel and transverse to the axis of rotation of the billet). Depending on the spindle location, lathe machines are divided into horizontal and vertical type (turning and boring).
Lathe working principle
Lathing of the billets includes machining of billets with a cutting tool, which moves along the billet rotational axis.
As the cutting tool moves, it removes a layer of billet material.
The very first models of lathe rotated the billet by means of a foot drive. In these machines, the cutting tool was attached with adjustable stop on the stand and could only process wood.
Using steam and electric motors started in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. These devices rotated billets to be machined. At that period, cutting tool holders were developed. The cutting tool was inserted in a holder, which an operator moved parallel and perpendicular to the billet. Such holders were called "lathe tool head".
Modern lathes move a cutting tool automatically at a predetermined time, and are able to tap thread of any precision and profile.
The main element of the cutting tool is a sharp cutter, which separates the chips from the billet. Drill bits, bores, taps and other cutting elements are used in addition to cutters. The main characteristic that affects the quality of billets is cutting speed (mm / min.). There is the following relationship: the slower the cutter cuts the metal, the less material is heated, and maintains its strength properties. When metal is machined at high speed, its surface is heated, and loses its effect, causing defects. In certain cases, defects can be corrected by an additional thermal or thermochemical treatment, but this process significantly increases the cost of work pieces. It should be noted that too slow processing increases time manufacturing of work pieces. Therefore, the main task of engineering technology is a correct calculation of processing conditions.
In the production of work pieces it is necessary to consider a number of important characteristics.
- Swing diameter over bed (D) is the maximum diameter of the work pieces that can be machined on a lathe.
- Distance between centers (L) is the maximum length of work piece, which can be machined on lathe.
- Spindle bore (d) is the diameter of the hole, which the billet passes through.
Scope of application and main operations
Lathes include machines that can perform the following operations:
- processing of external and internal cylindrical, shaped, tapered surfaces;
- internal and external thread cutting;
- facing of end surfaces by means of drills, reamers, taps, cutters, dies;
- drilling holes;
- counterboring of holes;
- reaming of holes;
On lathes, additional equipment can be installed allowing expanding the technological capabilities and performing of:
- drilling radial holes and others.
The following work pieces can be manufactured using lathes:
- different discs;
- couplings and so on.
Facing lathes serve for machining of flywheels, pulleys, gears with the maximum diameter of 6 m, i.e. large-scale work pieces fixed on the faceplate or clamped in the jaws. These machines resemble center lathes and differ from them by a relatively small length with the faceplate with a significantly extended diameter. The majority of facing lathes do not have a tailstock. When processing heavy work pieces on faceplates of a facing lathe, significant loads occur on the spindle and spindle bearings due to the weight of these overhanging work pieces. This fact determines the limited use of facing lathes.
Capstan lathes’ subgroup does not have a tailstock. Turrets are installed instead. Machining tools are inserted into these heads. These lathes are used for machining of a significant number of tools (drills, core drills, reamers, etc.) when machining without the test pass is feasible, as the turret moves until it stops.
Machining on capstan lathes is considered to be economically feasible:
- For lengths of 4 - 5 accuracy classes;
- For outer diameters of 3 - 4 accuracy classes.
Capstan lathes group includes:
1) lathes with turrets rotating vertically
2) lathes with turrets rotating horizontally.
The most common are lathes with a hexagon turret rotating vertically and lathes with a head rotating horizontally without a crossfeed carriage. Hexagonal turret head with vertical rotation have six slots for tools. Revolving heads with horizontal rotation are made circular; they have 12 - 16 slots for tool holding.
Multicutter single-spindle semiautomatic lathes
Such parts as shafts and gears of large-scale production are usually turned on multicutter lathes. These lathes are usually semiautomatic. An operator sets up the lathe, places a work piece, starts correctly the program chosen and removes the work pieces after machining. His function of the lathe monitoring is preserved. These lathes come with spindles arranged horizontally and vertically. Multicutter lathes are usually equipped with 2-4 front and rear slides. This enables not only to machine cylindrical surfaces of the shafts or gears, but tapered surfaces as well. Held in the cross slides, cutters can be used for turning shaft necks, face ends of step ledges, groove, and turn molded sections.
Multicutter lathes have a rigid, reliable structure, caused by significant cutting forces that arise during machining. Center chucks are used to transmit high torque, which occurs under rough turning on multicutter lathes, to a work piece. To reduce wear of tailstock centers and reaming of center recesses in work pieces being machined, these centers are made rotating.
Multi-spindle semiautomatic lathes
Multi-spindle semiautomatic lathes are divided into:
1) Horizontal, where work pieces are rotating or fixed;
2) Continuous or progressive vertical lathes.
Continuous vertical multi-spindle semiautomatic lathes or rotation lathes are used for turning of work pieces fixed in the centers or chucks. A round table with 6-8 vertical working spindles with chucks installed on it is connected to the central column and rotates with it slowly. Longitudinal and transverse slides are mounted in the columns, where cutters for work piece turning are fixed. All slides are configured identically.
Hence, the lathe can be considered as several single-spindle vertical multicutter semiautomates located on a rotating turret, which significantly reduces the production area. Multi-spindle (6-spindle and 8-spindle) vertical semiautomatic lathes of progressive working type are used for chucking applications. Semiautomates with 6 spindles are equipped with a round table containing vertical spindles with chucks, rotating independently of each other with a given number of rotations. Located in the center, the hexagonal column has five slides moving vertically and horizontally along the guide rails. Work pieces are fixed in the chucks or special devices located on the machine spindles. Work pieces are placed and removed after the faceplate rotation for 60°. In the remaining 5 positions, 5 pieces moved from time to time are machined and spindle speed is changed automatically.
Automatic lathes are used for tuning of work pieces from bars, but there are automates, which machine separate work pieces:
1) Single-spindle automatic lathes, classified as:
а) cutting and chamfering automatic lathes,
b) profile automatic lathes for longitudinal turning,
c) automatic turrets.
2) Мulti-spindle automatic lathes.
Cutting and chamfering automatic lathes are used to turn small short fittings and drill a central hole in them or cut an external thread. To turn the shaped surface and cut the work piece off the bar after machining, it is better to use cutters arranged in the cross slide (2 of 5) with a transverse feed. To drill center holes or tap, it is recommended to use tools placed in the longitudinal slide.
Profile automatic lathes for longitudinal turning of work pieces with longitudinal feed to the desired extension rod.
Automatic turrets resemble small turret lathes, but all operations of working units of automatic turrets are performed in fully-automatic modes. Located on the automates, 6 slot turrets rotate horizontally. There are three cross-slides. The tool holders of slides hold cutters: chamfering and cutting.
These lathes can produce the following operations: turning, whereby feed can be longitudinal and transverse; hole processing, and thread cutting (internal and external).
Multi-spindle automatic lathes have from 4 to 6 spindles, placed in drums and rotating from time to time at changing positions.
The main spindles, which are passed through the machined rods, have the same number of rotations in all positions. Except spindles, lathes are equipped with 2 or 3 additional longitudinal slides (spindles), which are designed for drilling and thread cutting. The axes of these slides coincide with the main axes of the spindles. Rotation is sometimes transmitted to additional spindles. to increase cutting speed for drilling, or reduce it for thread cutting.
Four-spindle automatic lathes work on 4 basic positions, each is responsible for its operation:
1st position is responsible for the pre-turning and drilling;
2nd either continues pretreatment, or makes partial finishing;
3rd position is for thread cutting;
4th position is responsible for cutting the work piece being machined.
When comparing different types of automates, it should be noted that the accuracy of machining on multi-spindle machines is lower as compared to single-spindle machines. This is caused by the fact that, in multi-spindle automates, spindles sit in the rotary drum, and the gaps formed when the drum contacts the casing introduces an additional error in processing. Those surfaces of the work pieces that require precise machining are completely machined in one machine position.
Screw-cutting lathes belong to the lathe group and account for a significant share of this type of cutting equipment. A screw-cutting lathe is used for machining of work pieces made of metal and other material by turning. The operation principle of such lathes lies in removing of extra material layer from a fixed billet by moving cutter.
A screw-cutting lathe is used to produce general turning operations and to cut left hand and right hand thread:
- inch screw thread;
- worm thread;
- metric screw thread;
- Archimedes spiral;
- Screw thread with different pitch values;
Rotary-table milling machines
Rotary-table milling machines are also included into the group of turning units. Structurally, such devices are double- and single-column. Rotary-table milling machines are used for machining of work pieces with significant weight and diameter, but with a relatively small height. These machines process external and internal surfaces of different profiles with a chisel. Using additional equipment, these machines can perform milling, chiseling, grinding.
Equipment for metallurgy
- Broaching machines
- Drawing stands
- Drilling machines
- Equipment for billet roughing (reduction)
- Equipment for machining pipe billets and slabs
- Forging presses
- Grinding machines (grinders)
- Heating furnaces
- Hot dipped galvanizing lines and equipment
- Metal cutting equipment (lines)
- Metalworking machinery
- Milling machines
- Pipe billets
- Pressure metal treatment stands (hot isostatic presses & pressing equipment)
- Roll stands and stand replacement parts
- Rotary-table milling machines
- Seamless Pipe Plants
- Section stands
- Screw-cutting lathes
- Thermal furnaces
- Tube and pipe plants and equipment
Upon becoming the official distributer of turning lathes, our company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), carries out the following: finds the buyers of your products on the market, conducts technical and commercial negotiations with the customers regarding the supplies of your equipment, concludes contracts. Should a bidding take place, we will collect and prepare all the documents required for the participation, conclude all the necessary contracts for the supply of your equipment, as well as register the goods (turning lathes) and conduct customs clearance procedures. We will also register a certificate of transaction (Passport of Deal) required for all foreign trade contracts in the foreign currency control department of the authorized Russian bank so that currency transaction could be effected. If required, our company will implement an equipment spacing project in order to integrate your equipment into the existing or newly built production plant.
We are convinced that our company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), will become your reliable, qualified and efficient partner & distributor in Russia.
We are always open for cooperation, so let’s move forward together!